De Maupertuis The degree measurements by de Maupertuis in the Tornionlaakso Valley 1736-1737
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The Lapps
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Barley and rye were widely cultivated in the Tornionlaakso Valley area and hop was cultivated for brewing ale. Some farmers even cultivated hemp but it usually remained very low grown. The fields were broken up by spades and harvested with sickles. Hay was cut with long narrow-bladed scathes. Barley and rye ripened at the same time. Outhier minutely describes the process of drying barley as well as the instruments and constructions that were used.

Among domestic animals Outhier mentions the horses, hens, sheep and cows. Hens were found in the rectory of Ylitornio but not further north.

The horses were used only in winter time. They were not only used for several work purposes but also for transport, just like the reindeer. Between Tornio and Pello there were several exchange places, houses that kept horses for the travellers. In summer time the horses were let loose in the wild and they made their ways to their own herds. The Frenchmen found this utterly peculiar. If someone needed a horse in the summer, the farmer fetched a horse from the place where he knew the animals were herding and afterwards let the horse loose again. The owners knew the summer routes of their horses. In the autumn when the weather got colder the horses made their way back to the farmhouse, each to their owners at their own time.
These animals were tough and calm, and got along with very little, just like their owners.

The cows were kept in herds close to the farmhouses where they were brought daily to be milked. In the town of Tornio there were scarcely any cows in summer, instead the cows were kept and milked on the mainland where enough grazing land was found. The cows in Lapland are small, white and mostly without horns.

Réginald Outhier, Journal of a Voyage to the North in the Years 1736 - 1737:
On agriculture (pp. 304-305)
Threshing barley (p. 294)
On horses (p. 295)
On cows (p. 296)



Drying rack

(Drawings by Outhier)

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